FALSE ACCUSATIONS IN JOB TERMINATIONS: DEFAMATION OR SLANDER IN COLORADO
Copyright: Copyright (c) July 2018
Despite increased sensitivity to physical and mental disabilities, many of America’s workers find themselves to be victims of employment discrimination due to their disability. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) reports that in 2017 there were 26,838 charges filed by employees against employers alleging disability discrimination.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, (ADA) is a federal law that prohibits employers from discriminating on the basis of a “qualified” disability. Employees living with a physical disability have the protection of federal law, not to give them preferential treatment, but to level the playing field. With the protection of the ADA, a worker who, despite a disability, is able to perform the essential functions of his job is entitled to reasonable accommodation from the employer, if needed. If you feel that you have been a victim of disability discrimination, it is important that you know your legal rights, and the actions you must take to prevent loss of your right to a remedy.
This article is not designed to provide legal advice or render legal opinions for specific situations. The law in other states may vary from Colorado on these issues. For specific legal questions, contact the attorney of your choice. If you wish to consult with the author on any matter relating to Colorado employment issues, you will be advised of the fee basis for such consultation.
WHAT IS DEFAMATION?
This article is not designed to provide legal advice or render legal opinions for specific situations. The law in other states may vary from Colorado on these issues. For specific legal questions, as to whether your conduct is protected by Federal or State law, contact the attorney of your choice. If you wish to consult with the author on any matter relating to Colorado employment issues, you will be advised of the fee basis for such consultation.
WHAT IS DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION?
Disability discrimination is the process of making decisions affecting an employee based wholly, or partly, upon the real or perceived disability of the employee, in those cases where the employee is a “qualified” individual under the ADA. The ADA prohibits employment discrimination against a qualified individual with a disability because of the disability of such individual in regard to job application procedures, the hiring, advancement, or discharge of employees, employee compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. A “qualified individual” is an “individual with a disability who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the employment position that such individual holds or desires.”
A person is “disabled” under the ADA if he has a “physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities”, 42 U.S.C. § 12102(1)(A). To prove the presence of disability, a plaintiff must “(1) have a recognized impairment; (2) identify one or more appropriate major life activities; and (3) show that the impairment substantially limits one or more of those activities.” Whether a plaintiff has met the first two requirements are questions of law for the court. But whether the impairment substantially limits a major life activity is ordinarily a question of fact for the jury. See, Sanchez v. Vilsack, 695 F.3d 1174 (10th Cir. 2012). The determination of whether an activity is a “major life activity” is not determined by reference to whether it is of central importance to daily life. The regulations further provide that the determination of whether or not an impairment substantially limits a major life activity, shall be made without consideration of measures taken to treat the disability, with the exception of ordinary eyeglasses and contact lenses. The regulations further provide that an impairment that is in remission or occurs only at certain times, is a disability if it would substantially limit a major life activity when active.
The ADA was amended by the ADAAA effective on January 1, 2009. In enacting the ADAAA, Congress made it easier for an individual seeking protection under the ADA to establish a disability within the meaning of the statute. Several Supreme Court decisions were overturned that Congress believed had interpreted the definition of disability too narrowly, with regard to many individuals, including those with impairments such as cancer, diabetes, and epilepsy. The ADAAA states that the definition of disability should be interpreted in favor of broad coverage of individuals.
The Regulations adopted under the ADAAA define Physical or mental impairment to include:
(1) Any physiological disorder, or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the major body systems; or
(2) Any mental or psychological disorder, including specific learning disabilities.
The Regulations include Major Life Activities as functions such as caring for oneself, walking, seeing, and hearing, as well as working. The Regulations tie the definition of substantially limits to the ability of the general population, and includes being unable to perform a major life activity that the average person in the general population can perform, or being significantly restricted in its performance.
Pursuant to the Regulations enacted following the adoption of the ADAAA, major life activities include, but are not limited to the following:
Caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, sitting, reaching, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, communicating, interacting with others, and working.
In addition, major life activities also include the following:
The operation of a major bodily function, including functions of the immune system, special sense organs and skin, normal cell growth, digestive, genitourinary, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain, respiratory, circulatory, cardiovascular, endocrine, and other functions.
In furtherance of the Congressional intent that the definition of disability should be interpreted in favor of broad coverage of individuals, the Regulations further provide that the determination of whether an activity is a “major life activity” is not determined by reference to whether it is of “central importance” to daily life.
The determination of whether a major life activity is affected is made without regard to treatment measures, which may correct the symptoms of the underlying impairment, with the exception of ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses. The Regulations further provide that an impairment that is in remission or occurs sporadically, is a disability if, during the period that it is active, it would substantially limit a major life activity. That would include impairment like cancer when it is in remission. A detailed description of the EEOC Regulations can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations located at 29 CFR 1630.
The ADA requires those claiming to be a “qualified individual” to prove their disability by offering evidence that the extent of the limitation caused by their impairment, in terms of their own experience, is substantial. However, unlike the case law before Congress amended the ADA by the ADAAA, the determination of whether a limitation is substantial must be interpreted consistently with the findings and purposes of the ADAAA. Instead of the major focus being on whether the individual’s impairment is a disability under the ADA, the primary focus should be on whether entities covered under the ADA have complied with their obligations. The ADAAA states, “the question of whether an individual’s impairment is a disability under the ADA should not demand extensive analysis.”
The determination of whether an individual has a disability, substantially limiting a major life activity, is not necessarily based on the name or diagnosis of the impairment the person has, except those circumstances where the EEOC regulations have listed specific impairments as constituting “substantial limitation”, such as cancer, diabetes, epilepsy and many others. Rather, the determination is based on the effect of that impairment on the life of the individual, and such determination is to be made on a case-by-case basis.
HOW TO DETERMINE IF YOU HAVE BEEN A VICTIM OF DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION
Litigation pursuant to the Federal discrimination statutes is very fact intensive. Thus, there is no black and white rule by which you can decide if you have been the victim of disability discrimination. It will be dependent upon the particular facts of your case. The fact that you are a “qualified individual” with a recognized disability and have had an adverse employment experience does not necessarily mean that you have been the victim of discrimination. Employers have the right to discipline and fire an employee with disabilities, as long as the decision is not based upon discriminatory or other impermissible factors. I recommend that, if you in any way suspect that you have been a victim of disability discrimination, you should immediately arrange for a consultation with a knowledgeable employment attorney. After reviewing the facts of your case, a seasoned attorney will be able to give you an opinion as to whether any adverse employment action was the likely result of discrimination. Prompt consultation with an attorney is extremely important due to various laws that require you to take certain action within a certain period of time after the occurrence of discrimination. Failure to act in a timely manner may result in loss of your rights to recover, even if you can prove the existence of discrimination. Also, with the passage of time, valuable evidence can be lost, and the memories of witnesses may fade.
Disability discrimination can take many different forms. It can consist of comments about the disability, made by managers or executives, accompanied by some type of adverse employment action or decision. Such action might include a failure to promote, less favorable employment conditions, disciplinary proceedings, layoff or termination. It may consist of situations in which the worker is able to perform the “essential functions” of the job, with reasonable accommodation, and the employer refuses to accommodate. One of the keys in determining whether you have a claim under the ADA is whether the comments about the disability, the failure to make reasonable accommodation, or other discriminatory actions, in fact were the reason, or part of the reason, for the adverse employment action.
WHAT IS “REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION”?
An employer is not required to guess that an employee has a disability requiring accommodation. The employee must first advise the employer of his disability and make a request for a reasonable accommodation. Once a qualified individual with a disability has requested provision of a reasonable accommodation, the employer must make a reasonable effort to determine the appropriate accommodation. The appropriate reasonable accommodation is best determined through a flexible, interactive process that involves both the employer and the qualified individual with a disability. Thus, an employer is not solely responsible for identifying a reasonable accommodation.
Reasonable accommodation may include making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. It may also include job restructuring; part-time or modified work schedules; reassignment to a vacant position; acquisition or modifications of equipment or devices; appropriate adjustment or modifications of examinations, training materials, or policies; the provision of qualified readers or interpreters; and other similar accommodations for individuals with disabilities.
In cases where an employee is unable to perform the essential functions of his present job, “reasonable accommodation” may include reassignment of the employee to a vacant position. The courts held that creating a new job by eliminating or modifying essential job functions instead of accommodating the job’s essential functions is not required under the ADA. See, EEOC v. TriCore Reference Labs, 493 F. App’x 955, 959 (10th Cir. 2012). However, an employer cannot deny an employee alternative employment opportunities reasonably available under the employer’s existing policies.
PROCEDURAL STEPS TO PRESERVE YOUR ADA CLAIM
In order to obtain the right to sue in federal or state court you must first file a charge of discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). That charge must be filed within 180 days of the alleged act of discrimination. Many states, such as Colorado, have a law that prohibits disability discrimination in employment and authorizes a state agency to grant relief. In such cases, the charge must be filed, either with the EEOC, within 300 days of the last act of discrimination, or with the Colorado Civil Rights Division (CCRD) within 180 days of the discrimination. If you do not file your charge within the required time period, you will probably be prevented from further pursuing your rights. A lawsuit claiming discrimination under the ADA must be filed within ninety days of receipt of a Right to Sue Letter from the EEOC or CCRD. If the appropriate agency has not acted within 6 months of the date of filing the charge, the employee may request the issuance of a Right to Sue Letter. Failure to follow the required time periods may cause you to lose your rights to seek a remedy for disability discrimination under the ADA.
Because of the intricacies of the various fact situations in relation to the legal principles, in addition to various time barriers, it is most important to consult with an experienced employment lawyer, who will be able to guide you through this maze. I make this recommendation despite the fact that you do not need a lawyer to file a charge with either the EEOC or CDRD. However, my experience has taught me that it may be a serious mistake to try to proceed on your own, even as to the initial filing of a charge. If you fail to include certain allegations, you may be prevented from bringing them up in a later lawsuit.
AMOUNT OF RECOVERY
Under the ADA, an employee who has been a victim of disability discrimination may recover the economic losses that would have been earned, but for the discrimination, compensatory damages for emotional trauma, and attendant physical suffering, punitive damages, attorney fees and court costs. Depending on your individual circumstances, you may be entitled to additional recoveries under state, rather than Federal, law
The fight against disability discrimination in the workplace involves analysis of multiple factors, specific to your case. Many of these factors have not been discussed in this article. Learn more about protecting your rights by selecting a competent lawyer to represent you.
Nathan Davidovich practices employment law in the state of Colorado, and he is available for consultation on any matters arising in the State of Colorado. Please contact Nathan Davidovich by email or by telephone, at the address below, to discuss the fees for representation and to schedule a consultation.
Nathan Davidovich, Attorney at Law
Davidovich Law Firm, LLC
3773 Cherry Creek North Drive
Denver, Colorado 80209
Phone: 303-586-6915/(303) TALK-LAW
Web Site: https://www.talk-law.com